Dark Matter

Long ago, before spiral galaxies, there was the night sky, even more enthralling than those soap bubbles I would soon be playing with.

Gazing at that magnificent tapestry, those pinpoints of light and the darkness surrounding them, I could almost feel their weave.  When, in daylight, someone would call 'Space' a vacuum, I could only wonder where their eyes were at night.  If on the sky, their failure was not of sight but of imagination and empathy; a failure to recognize the darkness as part of the weave of Creation and a failure to recognize that the backing of that weave, the Fabric of Space, tied all of us together in a unnamed commonality.  As empty as it might look to blinded eyes, blinded souls, there is simply no way that the planets, stars, galaxies and everything else could be floating in a sea of nothing, any more than we could  be walking around in empty space.

In fact, to anyone who thought about the idea of vacuums in detail, the idea should be laughable.  Any sizable vacuum would tear galaxies, suns, planets, and protons apart as their matter rushed in to fill it.

So, at the ripe old age of 7 or 8, I was convinced that we live in two Universes.  I thought of one as the Universe of the Very Big  (all the stuff we can see) and the other as the Universe of the Very Small (all the stuff we can't see).  And I left it there until the early '60s when the Big Bang and particle accelerators began making big news.

The Big Bang was making news because Penzias and Wilson had tripped over the Bang's background radiation, providing very strong evidence for the Bang itself, as well as the UVS, and particle accelerators had become powerful enough to start spewing out subatomic particles like popcorn.

So now I had a model, courtesy of the newly energized Big Bang and avalanche of sub-atomic particles, for my idea of two Universes: the Universe of the Very Big was made up of everything the size of an electron up and the Universe of the Very Small was made up of everything smaller, like those subatomic particles.

Looking for some confirmation, I approached our school's Physics teacher, assuming that Space-is-a-Vacuum was a Popular Misconception, that the Pros knew better.  Turns out that I was wrong, the Pros didn't  - and still don't - know better (November 2008; revised February 2012).

When I asked, What do physicists think space is made of?  that teacher looked at me like I was nuts, saying, Space is a Vacuum (you idiot).

When I pressed him on the issue (What about Nature abhorring a vacuum? What about the CBR?), he replied, Space is a Vacuum (you idiot).  Don't you know any better?

I couldn't believe this nonsense, so I asked again, Physicists believe this? and got the same response: Space is a Vacuum (you idiot).  Who do you suppose taught me that?

I Still couldn't believe it.  So I headed downtown to the main library and, though its resources were limited, they were good enough to confirm that,  yes, everybody did think Space is a vacuum, even the  Pros.  To say this totally  blew  my  mind  is a mild  understatement.

It's stuff like this inspired the '60s anti-establishment attitude: if they're not lying, they just don't know any better.

And what can you say about an entire community of PhD's who can't figure out something that was intuitively obvious, even to a child?  An intelligentsia capable of saying, "Nature abhors a vacuum" in one breath and, in the next, "Space is a vacuum".   All without noticing the contradiction.

That failure to understand that 'Space' is a complex weave backed by the Fabric of Space, not a vacuum, and that we live in two Universes has had enormously negative consequences for both mathematical physics and the experimental science of Astronomy/Astrophysics/Cosmology.  How can you, for example, get a handle on particle physics when you've completely misread the environment in which those particles exist.   Or how can you possibly blabber about the evolution and fate of the "Universe" when you're totally ignorant of the relationship between the Universe of the Very Big and the Universe of the Very Small.  And how can you even begin to understand Gravity when you've ignored one of its fundamental components, the Fabric of Space, for (at that time) more than forty years?

My Physics teacher's responses were actually very close to the mark; he just put "You Idiot" in the wrong place.

All of that prompted me to begin thinking about the Universes in greater detail.  For example, there was obviously no vacuum immediately following the Big Bang nor could the early Universe be composed of nothing but hydrogen and helium ions - their mutual repulsion simply wasn't strong enough to counteract the effect of tiny vacuums that would form as they tried to distance themselves from one another, meaning that the early Universe would have been virtually uniformly smooth, hydrogen and helium ions jammed together, little vacuums forming when their natural repulsion tried pushing them apart and jamming them back together again.  The Universe as a Mexican Bus.  The expansion of the Universe?  Stillborn.

Add electrons, a lot of electrons, as a bed, and things improve.  Initially, just after the Bang, electrons could have made a lot of room and their attraction to hydrogen and helium ions could, theoretically, have provided a clumping mechanism leading, to the first stars.  But there are problems: electrons interact with ions, making for an extremely uncomfortable bed, especially since everyone would be trying to mate and everyone would be rolling over everyone else who was trying to mate and, in the process, everyone would lose track of their parts and where they trying to put them: a Marx Brothers' orgy.

That chaos would subside, producing a lot of neutrons, many chargeless helium ions as well a good number of bachelor hydrogen and helium ions who were caught between partners when the bed broke and, helter skelter, some of the messy, sweaty stuff was sucked into the collapse while the rest was tossed back out into the Universe, leaving the first sun to mess around however it liked. That is the problem, that sun and the suns like it would produce heavy elements but not enough to generate a second generation of stars.  Electrons alone, can't  provide either enough space or mass to make stars much larger than our sun, suns that can't produce enough heavy elements to spark a second generation of stars.

This is no way to build a universe.
If you add another layer - the UVS - all of those problems disappear.  Now you have space for ions to repulse one another and electrons are no longer hopping on anything that moves.  Great clouds of hydrogen and helium ions can form and collapse into supermassive Black Holes, the shock waves igniting the first stars.  The UVS, inert relative to the UVB,  providing the space and the mass for those ions to begin building the complex UVB we're familiar with.

But, again, what precisely is the UVS?

The popcorn effect of the accelerators of the 60's  didn't help - while it had helped me define the primary levels of the two Universes, the particles it produced were tied too closely to protons to be part of the UVS, like the difference between Legos and ping pong balls.  Besides, the popcorn's particles, according to their discoverers, couldn't survive on their own (oops! according to whom?).

I was looking for something far more fundamental, something inert that, at the same time, could divide into any little vacuums that formed around it.

Mimicking the Oopsies (the Physicists and Astrophysicists who believed in The Vacuum), I invented Electromagnetic  Bubbles.  Little bubbles of electromagnetic energy that surrounded nothing, tiny little vacuums.  Those vacuums would give the bubbles great strength, their semi-spherical shape, allow them to "jiggle" as they jostled among themselves and deform as they tried to fill external vacuums, stretching until they reach a breaking point, divided and then snapped back into virtual spheres.  Ironically, as an opponent of the very idea of vacuum, tiny vacuums were the perfect mechanism for my bubbles: electromagnetic energy flowing into very flexible, very strong bubbles as it tried to fill them.

Only problem: we have no idea what electromagnetic energy is or whether it's capable of existing in forms like my bubbles.  We do know a lot about how Electromagnetism and the ' Fields' it creates behave but we have no idea what it is: tiger, elephant or shuttlecock.  In short, when you watch a magnet gather little grains of iron around it (the inspiration for my bubbles), you can define the behavior but the how and why remain a mystery.

What those bubbles did give me were the characteristics of whatever kind of particle comprises the UVS, along with three links to the UVB: a shape, a process and an idea.  The shape is the sphere, the fundamental unit of both Universes, and the process is  the attempt of every body in both Universes to become a perfect sphere: an attempt doomed simply because everything in both Universes is moving, changing all the time, from every jostle or jiggle in the UVS to every Black Hole's consumption of another sun, planet or proton in the UVB, defining the Universes as equal shares of process and that which is being processed, and implying The Idea that nothing, from the smallest particle to the biggest supermassive black hole, is identical to anything else.  Every object, every wave of energy, every process is individual and unique to itself.  An idea I call the Uniqueness Principle.

As obvious as this may seem, its implications are monumental: for example, Quantum Theory is based on the belief that the fundamental structures of the "Universe" can only be expressed mathematically and, in mathematics, individuality doesn't exist; in arithmetic there is only one 1, no mater how many times you evoke it, it's still just 1.  In Geometry, every form has its template, variable in size, but still a single template.  In Algebra and Calculus, every function has its equation, immutable, variables notwithstanding.

This means that, in Quantum Theory, every proton has to be identical to every other other proton, every electron identical to every other electron, every neutrino identical to every other neutrino; they're each an expression of their own particular equation.  Further, their behavior has to be equally general; every electron orbit identical to every other orbit, differing only in their power level, producing molecules identical to every other like molecule: every molecule of water identical to its twins.  And the ripples, each identical to the others, producing more and more complex structures, identical in each iteration, from people to Black Holes: a Fascist paradise.

Variation of any kind is not allowed or the whole house of cards collapses.

So, the Uniqueness Principle is incredibility dangerous, not only to ideologies like Quantum Theory, but to any Generalistic ideology: political, social, educational, technical, economic, theological, legal, philosophical or waiting for the light to change, late at night, with no traffic in sight.

It also means that whatever the UVS is made of, it's ruled by individuality and change, just the the UVB.

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